Research

CONFERENCE ABSTRACT

An abstract is an integral part of conference planning. The main goal of an abstract is to describe the paper or the presentation of a conference. Each abstract must belong to one of the four topics of the conference (agriculture, water, environmental protection, and climate change). Please state the topic and the sub-topic of your abstract. All publications and presentations require abstracts. The abstracts must either describe the problems of the country’s development challenges or offer solutions to the challenges. Authors are responsible for writing the abstracts and following its guidelines.  Well-written abstracts often lead to well-written papers.

The abstracts will be reviewed in two steps. The first step is for the topic leaders to review the abstracts within three days after submission. After review, the topic leaders shall send the abstracts and their recommendations to the Board. The Board must complete the final abstract review within three days. Depending on the quality of the abstract and its relevance to the conference, reviewers shall offer recommendations for improvement if necessary.

Abstract Guidelines

  1. Abstract Title: The abstract title is written at the top of the page. It must be short and must reflect the content of the abstract. The recommended abstract title font is Times New Roman and the font size is 14.
  2. Author Info: Print your name and your email below the abstract title.
  3. Abstract Length: Abstracts should not be shorter than 250 words and longer than one page. The abstract’s font is Times New Roman, and the font size is 12.

 

 Abstract Section Organization

The abstract shall contain the summary of the following sections.

  1. Introduction and objectives: Author(s) must state the scope of the paper.
  2. Methods and Data: Author(s) must explain the methods and the data used to achieve the objectives shown in section 4.
  3. Results: Author(s) shall state the expected results of the paper.
  4. Conclusion: Author(s) shall write a summary of the main points of the paper.

 Additional Guidelines on Conference Topics

This section is an addendum to the conference abstract and its purpose is to give authors more information about the four conference topics and their subtopics.

  1. Achieving Sustainable and Resilient Agriculture: Agriculture consists of crop production systems, livestock production systems, and aquaculture. Major subtopics of the crop production systems are agronomy, irrigation, and agricultural infrastructures such as farm machinery, plant breeding, plant protection, agricultural economics, and agribusiness and marketing. Other important subtopics are sustainable fishery management techniques and the adoption of sustainable livestock-rearing methods.

Please submit your abstract to Dr. Mohamed Ahmed, email address: ahmedmb@sbcglobal.net.

Or Eng. Rage Mohamed Aden, email address:  bird@bu.edu.so

 

CONFERENCE ABSTRACT

An abstract is an integral part of a conference planning. The main goal of an abstract is to describe the paper or the presentation of a conference. Each abstract must belong to one of the four topics of the conference (agriculture, water, environmental protection, and climate change). Please state the topic and the sub-topic of your abstract. All publications and presentations require abstracts. The abstracts must either describe problems of the country’s development challenges or offer solutions to the challenges. Authors are responsible for writing the abstracts and following its guidelines.  Well-written abstracts often lead to well-written papers.

The abstracts will be reviewed in two steps. The first step is for the topic leaders to review the abstracts within three days after submission. After review, the topic leaders shall send the abstracts and their recommendations to the Board. The Board must complete the final abstract review within three days. Depending on the quality of the abstract and its relevance to the conference, reviewers shall offer recommendations for improvement if necessary.

Abstract Guidelines

  1. Abstract Title: The abstract title is written at the top of the page. It must be short and must reflect the content of the abstract. The recommended abstract title font is Times New Roman and font size is 14.
  2. Author Info: Print your name and your email below the abstract title.
  3. Abstract Length: Abstracts should not be shorter than 250 words and longer than one page. The abstract’s font is Times New Roman, and the font size is 12.

 

 Abstract Section Organization

The abstract shall contain the summary of the following sections.

  1. Introduction and objectives: Author(s) must state the scope of the paper.
  2. Methods and Data: Author(s) must explain the methods and the data used to achieve the objectives shown in section 4.
  3. Results: Author(s) shall state the expected results of the paper.

Conclusion: Author(s) shall write a summary of the main points of the paper.

Additional Guidelines on Conference Topics

This section is an addendum to the conference abstract and its purpose is to give authors more information about the four conference topics and their subtopics.

  1. Managing and Developing Water Resources in a Sustainable Manner: The water topic consists of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater is classified into confined and unconfined aquifers. Groundwater studies of interest to the conference include groundwater resources in Somalia, an assessment of the current groundwater utilization rates in the country, its regional distributions, identification and mapping of untapped areas, and constraints to groundwater utilization. The major surface water resources of the country are the Juba and the Shabelle rivers which constitute an important subtopic of surface water resources. Surface water subtopics may also include studies on flooding and droughts, water sharing and transboundary agreements, and water management plans for the Juba and Shabelle River Basins. The third water subtopic is rainwater management. On average, Somalia receives an annual rainfall of 200 mm. While most regions receive less than the average annual rainfall, other regions receive 400 mm or higher. Conference organizers encourage more papers on agrometeorology and rain-water management.

Please submit your abstract to Dr. Awes Karama, email address: awesk@yahoo.com

Or Eng. Rage Mohamed Aden, email address:  bird@bu.edu.so

 

 

CONFERENCE ABSTRACT

An abstract is an integral part of a conference planning. The main goal of an abstract is to describe the paper or the presentation of a conference. Each abstract must belong to one of the four topics of the conference (agriculture, water, environmental protection, and climate change). Please state the topic and the sub-topic of your abstract. All publications and presentations require abstracts. The abstracts must either describe problems of the country’s development challenges or offer solutions to the challenges. Authors are responsible for writing the abstracts and following its guidelines.  Well-written abstracts often lead to well-written papers.

The abstracts will be reviewed in two steps. The first step is for the topic leaders to review the abstracts within three days after submission. After review, the topic leaders shall send the abstracts and their recommendations to the Board. The Board must complete the final abstract review within three days. Depending on the quality of the abstract and its relevance to the conference, reviewers shall offer recommendations for improvement if necessary.

Abstract Guidelines

  1. Abstract Title: The abstract title is written at the top of the page. It must be short and must reflect the content of the abstract. The recommended abstract title font is Times New Roman and font size is 14.
  2. Author Info: Print your name and your email below the abstract title.
  3. Abstract Length: Abstracts should not be shorter than 250 words and longer than one page. The abstract’s font is Times New Roman, and the font size is 12.

 

 Abstract Section Organization

The abstract shall contain the summary of the following sections.

  1. Introduction and objectives: Author(s) must state the scope of the paper.
  2. Methods and Data: Author(s) must explain the methods and the data used to achieve the objectives shown in section 4.
  3. Results: Author(s) shall state the expected results of the paper.

Conclusion: Author(s) shall write a summary of the main points of the paper.

Additional Guidelines on Conference Topics

This section is an addendum to the conference abstract and its purpose is to give authors more information about the four conference topics and their subtopics.

  1. Protecting the Environment: Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations, and governments. The World Bank’s country environmental analysis (CEA) report states that Somalia’s natural capital is under substantial pressure from inappropriate land uses, conflict, and climate change. In its Ninth National Development Plan (Somalia NDP-9), the government of Somalia identified vulnerabilities to environmental shocks as one of the six major causes of poverty (World Bank, 2020).

The focus of this topic is to protect the country’s natural resources without constraining its economic development. The environmental protection subtopics include papers, presentations, panel discussions on environmental stressors such as deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion by water and wind, marine toxic damping, overfishing and illegal fishing, urban solid waste, and desertification.

Please submit your abstract to Dr Yusuf Mohamoud, email address: dalmar45@gmail.com

Or Eng. Rage Mohamed Aden, email address:  bird@bu.edu.so

 

 

CONFERENCE ABSTRACT

An abstract is an integral part of a conference planning. The main goal of an abstract is to describe the paper or the presentation of a conference. Each abstract must belong to one of the four topics of the conference (agriculture, water, environmental protection, and climate change). Please state the topic and the sub-topic of your abstract. All publications and presentations require abstracts. The abstracts must either describe problems of the country’s development challenges or offer solutions to the challenges. Authors are responsible for writing the abstracts and following its guidelines.  Well-written abstracts often lead to well-written papers.

The abstracts will be reviewed in two steps. The first step is for the topic leaders to review the abstracts within three days after submission. After review, the topic leaders shall send the abstracts and their recommendations to the Board. The Board must complete the final abstract review within three days. Depending on the quality of the abstract and its relevance to the conference, reviewers shall offer recommendations for improvement if necessary.

Abstract Guidelines

  1. Abstract Title: The abstract title is written at the top of the page. It must be short and must reflect the content of the abstract. The recommended abstract title font is Times New Roman and font size is 14.
  2. Author Info: Print your name and your email below the abstract title.
  3. Abstract Length: Abstracts should not be shorter than 250 words and longer than one page. The abstract’s font is Times New Roman, and the font size is 12.

 

 Abstract Section Organization

The abstract shall contain the summary of the following sections.

  1. Introduction and objectives: Author(s) must state the scope of the paper.
  2. Methods and Data: Author(s) must explain the methods and the data used to achieve the objectives shown in section 4.
  3. Results: Author(s) shall state the expected results of the paper.

Conclusion: Author(s) shall write a summary of the main points of the paper.

Additional Guidelines on Conference Topics

This section is an addendum to the conference abstract and its purpose is to give authors more information about the four conference topics and their subtopics.

  1. Adapting and Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change: Burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas are the primary drivers of climate change. Climate change manifestations include severe and frequent droughts, increased flash floods, erratic rainfall, rising air temperatures, sea level rise, and increased sand and dust storms. The main subtopics are assessments on the role climate change plays on droughts, famine, floods, and human displacement. Another important subtopic is the application of technologies that mitigate the effect of climate change by creating jobs and combating poverty.

Please submit your abstract to Dr. Omar Mohamud, email address: omar.m.mohamud@gmail.com.

Or Eng. Rage Mohamed Aden, email address:  bird@bu.edu.so

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha

(Somali Veterinary Journal)

 

Editor in chief: Prof Ahmed S. M. Moallin (Kutub)

 

 

Golaha Takhaatirta Xanaanada Xoolaha

(Vet Forum)

 

 

About the Journal

The articles published in this Somali Veterinary Journal (Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha) are free and accessible online having the right to use the full tests. It publishes papers in Somali and English. The Journal covers the interesting research articles, reviews, short communications as well as case reports dedicated to animal production and diseases in Somalia.

 

Editorial Board

Editorial in Chief: Prof Ahmed Moallin (Kutub) Vet Forum

Editorial members:

Prof. Hassan M. H, Somali National University, hassanadale@gmail.com

Dr Nurta S. M., Benadir University, nurtabella@yahoo.com

Dr Ahmed Kadle, Abraar University, Kadle010@gmail.com

Dr Mohamoud Abdi (Dheere), Vet Forum, Mohamoud2004@hotmail.com

Dr Abdurahman Ali (Ramoon), Vet Forum, gowraar@hotmail.com

Dr Mohamed Abdulle (Sh), Vet Forum, Abdulle_57@hotmail.com

 

Submission  

The manuscript is submitted to Prof Ahmed Kutub

Email: amkutub@hotmail.com,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

Furitaanka Shirweeynaha Ururada Geela 2022

Camel Research Institute

Abdi M. and A. S. M. Moallin, Vet Forum, Mohamoud2004@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha (Somali Veterinary Journal) 3 (1): 2-3, 5 November 2022.

Veterinary Laboratories in Somalia

Ali A.H. and A.S.M. Moallin, Vet Forum, gowrar@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha (Somali Veterinary Journal) 3 (2):4-5, 5 November 2022.

Viral zoonoses of camels in Somalia

Moallin A.S.M., Vet forum, amkutub@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga

Xoolaha (Somali Veterinary Journal) 3 (3): 6-10, 25 November 2022.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Furitaanka Shirweeynaha Cudurada Geela 2022

 

Shirweeynaha ugu horreyey ee Cudurada Geela Soomaaliyed waxaa ladhigey 5ta November 2022 iyada oo la isticmaalayo Internetka Zoom.  Barnaamijka inta hore oo ah Furitaanka iyo Warqadaha laga yeedinaayo waxaa daadihinaayey Dr Aamir Muse iyo Prof Ahmed Kutub tan dambe oo ah Dooda Xarunta Cilmibaarista Geela.

Waxaa fureen Shirweeynaha laba Guddomiye oo kala ah Prof M.M. Bidei iyo Dr Ahmed Kadle ee Jaamicadaha Benadir iyo Abraar. Waxaa kelo ka qeebgaley Prof Abdisalam Salwe Kuxigeeynka Chancellorka Jaamicadda Bariga Africa. Waxaa dadaal badan geliye hirgelintiisa Golaha Takhaatirta Xanaanada Xoolaha (Vet Forum) ee London, UK.

Waa kuwaan afarta Qoraal oo lasoo jeediyey:

  1. Camel Research Institute. Dr Mohamoud Abdi Vet Forum, London UK.
  2. Camel brucellosis in Puntland. Dr Husein Muse Jamicadda Bariga Africa qeebta Qardho, Puntland.
  3. Veterinary laboratories in Somalia. Abdirahman H. Ali (Ramoon) Vet Forum, London UK.
  4. Viral zoonoses of camels in Somalia. Prof A.S. (Kutub) Vet Forum, London UK.

Kadib waxaa laga doodey Xarunta Cilmibaarista Geela oo si qota dheer laga hadley muhimada ee Xarun Cilmibaariseed ey u leedahay dhaqaalaha dalka. Markii saacada dhoor ah laga hadley waxaa laga soo saarey in la dhiso Guddi ka kooban Jaamicadaha eey kamidyihiin Jaamicadda Ummada Soomaaliyeed, Jaamicadda Benadir, Jaamicadda Abraar iyo Jaamicadda Soomaaliya ee fidhigooda Moqdisho eey yihiin. Waxaa kelo Guddiga kamid ah xubna ka ah Jaamicadda Bariga Afrika iyo Ururka Takhaatirta X. Xoolaha ee Koonfur Galbeed (Sowelpa) ee fidhigooda yahay Bosaaso iyo Baydhabo. Kuwaaas oo la xariiraayo Jaamicadaha iyo Dawladda sida ugu habboon oo loo hirgelinaayo Xarunta Cilmibaarista Geela.

 

Qofkii rabo Videyaha Shirweeynaha Cudurada Geela 2022 haiga soo codsado asiga oo mahadsan

Warqada labaad wili ma i soo gaarin

 

 

 

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Camel Research Institute

(Xarunta Cilmibaarista Geela)

Abdi M. and A. S. M. Moallin, Vet Forum, mohamoud2004@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha (Somali Veterinary Journal) 3 (1): 2-3, 5 November 2022.

 

Case Report (Xusid Kooban)

 

Introduction

The world camel population is estimated at 27 million with 7 million in Somalia. Camels provide milk, meat, and transport. Live camels are exported to the Gulf Arab countries. Thus, the Somali economy is, to a great extent, based on camel production.

Therefore, the establishment of Camel Research Institute can play an important role in the development strategy of camel production.

The Camel Research Institute is to be initiated in Mogadishu, but the headquarters is to decide at a later date. The Institute will carry out surveys on camel disease and production and will train students in camel production and development. It will also organize seminars and national and international conferences on camels

The Institute will collaborate with universities and technical schools such as Somali National University, Benadir University, Sheikh Technical Veterinary School, and other local and international institutions.

Research program

The research program will consist of surveys on camel disease and production as well as their economic impact on the herds in Somalia.

Proposals for research activities will consist of the disease project on the investigation of viral skin and neurological viral diseases of camels in the country, and in camel breeds in Northern Somalia.

Field surveys

The field investigations will be conducted regularly with the collaboration of the owners and Livestock Professional Associations.

 

 

 

 

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The research will start as soon as the organization’s processes and governance are in place and will be oriented for prospective monitoring surveys in various locations where herds will be selected according to their ecological system. The owners will be routinely interviewed on the clinical descriptions of the diseases they encounter in their herds, and deaths in the herds.

Samples collected at necropsy, such as feces, blood smears, sera, and tissues will be assessed by laboratory methods to assist in the determination of the causes of death.

Laboratory investigation

The samples will be investigated for viruses, bacteria, parasites, intoxication, and nutritional deficiencies. Modern molecular techniques such as ELISA and PCR will be used.

Collaboration

The Institute will collaborate with the Faculty of Veterinary Science of Benadir University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry of Somali National University, College of Veterinary Medicine of Abrar University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Somalia University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Qardho Branch) of East Africa University   and Sheikh Technical Veterinary School with the participation of Livestock Professional Associations in their respective Centres.

Fund

The Fund of the Institute is supplied by the voluntary contribution from Veterinary organizations and associations and the camel herder owners in the country.

Staff

The staff of the Institute is the Director, scientists, and administrative.

Library

The library will be the most key component of the Institute and it will be provided internet, books, and journals. The importance of the library is to assist researchers and students for their studies on the references of camel disease and production.

The library will be the centre of camel documentation on disease and production in Somalia.

Publications

The finding of the investigations will be published in the local such as Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha (Somali Veterinary Journal), Camel Newsletter and international Journals.

 

 

 

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Veterinary Laboratories in Somalia.

(Sheybaarada X. Xoolaha Soomaaliyeed)

Ali A. H. and A, S. M. Moallin, Vet Forum, gowrar@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha 3 (2): 4-5, 5 November 2022.

 

Case Report (Xusid Kooban)

 

Introduction

The world camel population is estimated around twenty-seven million of which Somalia has the largest number of 6-7 million. Camels provide milk, meat, and transport of household migration. They are exported to Gulf countries for hard currency. The Somali economy is based on livestock and in particularly on camels.

There were several laboratories before the Civil war in the country such as Serum and Vaccine Institute (Main laboratory in the country), National Trypanosomiasis Centre, Kismayo laboratory, Beletweyne laboratory and Hargeisa laboratory.

The collapse of these laboratories

The laboratories were looted in 1990 of Civil war, so it is necessary to rebuild laboratories in order to keep update animal diseases, develop program of prevention and research. There are discussions on the creation of a new Camel Research Institute (CRI).

Camel Research Institute

This Institute (CRI) is to be initiated in Mogadishu, but the base of the headquarter is to be allocated where camels come for water such as Ceel CaIi or Ceelbuur in Central regions.

The Institute will collaborate with team leaders of Universities of Mogadishu, East Africa University and with the collaboration of Ministry of Livestock and Livestock associations which are engaged in field outbreaks.

The specimen collected from field should be sent to CRI in collaboration with other laboratories in the Ministry of livestock and regional ones.

The institute will collaborate with team leaders of the Universities of Mogadishu, East Africa University, Ministry of livestock and livestock associations who are engaged in the field for disease outbreaks to collect specimens from sick and suspected animals for laboratory diagnosis.

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The CRI will further collaborate with universities such as the Somali National University Benadir University, Abraar University, Somalia University and East Africa University, Sheikh Technical Veterinary School, and other available universities.

The CRI will have a Central library which contains reference books on camel disease and production. It will prepare conferences, workshops. The papers of the researchers will be submitted to the Somali Veterinary Journal (Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha).

Conclusion

All Collapsed laboratories such as Serum and Vaccine Institute, National trypanosomiasis Centre, Kismayo Laboratory, Beletweyne Laboratory, Hargeisa laboratory and other new ones in all autonomous regions should be repaired or rebuild these laboratories in order to have better animal health and production.

Camel Research Institute is particularly important to be created as a Centre for the study of camel disease investigation and production.

The aim of the CRI is to become one of the world Camel Research Centre since Somalia has the most camel population in the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Viral zoonoses of camels in Somalia

Moallin A.S.M., Vet forum, amkutub@hotmail.com. Warsidaha Cilmiga Xoolaha 3 (3): 6-10, 25 November 2022.

Review (Aragti dheeri ah)

 

Abstract

Somalia has the largest camel population in world which estimated seven million of the twenty-seven million in World. Camel produces milk, meat, and hides. Camel is used for nomadic transport. Camels also exported mostly to the Middle East for hard currency.

Camel transmits diseases to humans and other animals. The viral zoonotic diseases found in Somalia are Camelpox, Camel contagious ecthyma, Rabies, Middle East respiratory syndrome, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Pests des petits ruminants, Bovine viral diarrhea, Bluetongue and African horse sickness.

Introduction

Camel population in Somalia is estimated at seven million whereas the world camel population is around twenty-seven million. camel products are milk, meat, and hides. The camel is used for the main transport in the nomadic migration. It is also exported to the Arabian Gulf for hard currency.

There are recently frequent climate change and drought conditions which may be responsible for making camels more susceptible to these diseases.

Camel dairy farms are established in near the towns and cities like Mogadishu to satisfy the increased demand of urban population in Somalia.

Camel represents a source of transmission on the zoonotic diseases to humans and other animals. There is the risk of disease transmission from wildlife to camel population and vice-verse.

The most important viral zoonoses in Somalia are Camelpox, Camel contagious ecthyma, Rabies, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. Other viruses like Pests des petite ruminants, Bovine viral diarrehea. Bluetongue and African horse sickness are reported in Somalia.

The major viral zoonotic diseases in the dromedary and their impact risk on human population are reviewed.

 

 

 

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Camelpox (Furuqageela, Tuurtuur)

Camelpox (CP) is caused by camelpox virus (Orthopoxvirus, Poxviridae) which related to the variola virus of human Smallpox.

Camelpox is reported in Somalia (Mares 1954, Kriz 1982, Jezek at el 1983). CP mostly affects camels, and it is transmitted by direct, indirect or by ticks.

The first conclusive evidence of zoonotic camelpox infection was confirmed in an outbreak of dromedary camels where three human cases of camelpox have been reported (Bera et al. 2011). The pox lesions were observed on the hands and fingers of camel herders. Another four cases of camelpox in humans were detected in Sudan in 2015 (Khalafalla et al. 2016).

The symptoms of camelpox are pustules on the nasal and oral mucosa in the mild form whereas, fever, papules, vesicles, and pustules with the formation of scabs in the severe form.

The diagnosis is based on symptoms. However, mild infections of camels are confused on camel contagious ecthyma and camel papillomatosis infections. The samples are detected on the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the evidence of camelpox virus particles and its deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) respectively.

The antiviral Cidofovir is used for treatment of camelpox. Inactivated vaccine provide protection for 1 year whereas life attenuated for 6 years in camels.

Camel contagious ecthyma (Ajarre, Afburbur)

Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is a parapovirus of the family Poxviridae. The disease is widespread in concomitance with Camel Papillomatosis. The clinical signs are similar to those of camelpox and camel papillomatosis but camelpx is more severe. CCE is widespread in Somalia (Kriz, 1982; Moallin, 1988). There was no human infection observed in the outbreaks of CCE in Central Somalia.

The samples are diagnosed on TEM, PCR and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The young dromedaries usually recover from the disease.

Rabies (Dawaca waalan)

Rabies virus belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Cases of rabies in camels reported in Asia and Africa but not yet in Somalia. There are no reported infection cases in camels nor transmitted from camels to humans in Somalia. Rabies virus is usually transmitted by dog bites through saliva. Dogs, jackals, and hyenas are the most important reservoir in the country. Domestic animals and wild carnivores are susceptible.

Neurological diseases reported in Somalia are rabies, tuberculosis, echinococcosis, and coenurosis (Moallin 2009). The prevalent sign of the disease in camels is the dumb type (Silent) but the furious (excitative) is less observed. Clinical signs include salivation, posterior paresis followed by paralysis and death.

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Rabies can be confused with other neurological diseases. The suspected animals are observed for two weeks. The diagnosis is based on the direct fluorescent antibody (FA) and PCR. Control measures are incineration or burial of all infected animal carcasses, vaccination of dogs and raising of public awareness.

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

Middle East respiratory syndrome (Neefsashada coronavirus bariga dhexe) is a coronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. MERS virus was first identified in patient died with acute pneumonia in Saudi Arabia (Zaki et al., 2012). The disease is found in many countries including Ethiopia and Kenya.

MERS’ antibodies of hight positivity of 68% and 86% were reported in Somali dromedary in 1983-1984 (Müller et al., 2014), although there is no data on the transmission of the virus from camels to humans in Somalia.

The camel is the most important host for the transmission of MERS to humans.

The clinical signs in humans are fever, cough, pneumonia, diarrhea, and renal failure which may lead to the death. The mild signs are fever and nasal discharge which observed in the dromedaries. Nasal discharges and blood are collected for the detection of viral RNA and antibodies using RT-PCR and ELISA. There is no treatment and vaccine available in Somalia.

Rift Valley fever (Sandhiig)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a member of Phlebovirus of the family of Bunyaviridae. Camels, small ruminants, and cattle are susceptible. The disease is a deadly zoonosis which is endemic in Africa. There are not enough signs observed in camels except abortion.

One hundred fourteen cases including fifty-one deaths of RVF between 19 December 2006 and 20 February 2007 were reported in Somalia (WHO, 2007).

The antibodies detected in Somali camels have shown the disease is endemic in the country (Soumare et al, 2007). The disease is transmitted by direct contact with infected animals or by mosquitoes.

RT-PCR and ELISA are useful for the detection of RNA genome and antibodies. The vaccines are available for livestock. RVF can be prevented from humans by vaccinating and restricting the movement of animals.

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF)

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a zoonotic disease. CCHF is a severe tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. The disease is the most widespread tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in Africa, Eastern and Southern Europe and Central Asia. Hyalomma spp are the main reservoir of the disease.

 

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Serological prevalence of 7% CCHF in people at the Refugee Camp of Berbera (Hibbs et al, 1993). Therefore, the disease is present in Somalia. The disease is asymptomatic in camels although there are high fever, haemorrhages, and death in humans. The prevention consists of the control of ticks.

Pests des petits ruminants (PPR)

The disease of Pests des petits ruminants is widespread in Africa including Somalia. The disease occurs in small ruminants but not yet confirmed in Somali camels. Life vaccine of PPR is available for small ruminants in Somalia.

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Bluetongue

Bovine viral diarrhea and Bluetongue antibodies of 3.4% and 12,3% have been reported in healthy dromedary herds of Somalia (Bornstein, 1988; Ghanam et al, 2009).

African horse sickness

Outbreaks of African horse sickness with twenty cases and seven deaths were reported in Somali horses without evidence of the presence of the disease in camels (PAAHYP, 2011).

Camels are known to be carriers for these viral infections but there is no evidence the transmission of these infections from camels to humans in Somalia.

Conclusions

These viral zoonotic diseases can give infection to humans. Camel milk and meat are the major source of infection; therefore, the dromedaries should be managed according to the best proper slaughter, pasteurization, and sanitation. The camels are also a source of vector borne disease; therefore, vaccination of camels and control of mosquitoes and ticks are necessary to prevent from human infection.

References

Bera B.C., K. Shanmugasundaram, S. Barua, G. Venkatesan, N. Virmani, T. Riyesh, B.R. Gulati, V. Dhanuprakash, R.K. Veid, N.K. Kakker, P. Malik, M. Bansal, S. Gadvi, R.V. Singh, V. Yadav, Sardarilal, G. Nagaraian, V. Balamurugaan, M. Hosamani, K.M.L. Pathale, and R.K. Singh. 2011. Zoonotic cases of Camelpox infection in India, Veterinary Microbiology 152 (1-2): 29-38.

Bornstein S. 1988. A disease survey of Somali camel. SAREC Report, Sweden.

 

 

 

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